• Metric system and primary units,
  • International system of units,
  • Methods of estimation,
  • Main items of work,
  • Deduction of opening etc.
  • R.C.C and R.B work,
  • Flooring and Roofing,
  • Plastering and Pointing,
  • Pillars, Doors and Windows, Wood work,
  • Iron work, White washing, Colour washing,
  • Distempering, Painting, Lumpsum items, Rates,
  • Reducing calculation, Degree of accuracy,
  • Units of measurements, units of works,
  • Sizes and dimensions of various works, modular bricks,
  • Traditional bricks and thickness of wall.


  • Estimate of walls by sepereate and centre line method,
  • Estimate of stair cases.


  • Estimate of masonry platform, estimate of masonry tank,
  • Estimate of single room with verandah,
  • Estimate of two roomed building,
  • Estimate of three roomed building,
  • Estimate of an office building,
  • Estimate of shop building.


  • R.C.C work,
  • Percentage steel reinforcement,
  • Standard hooks and cranks of reinforcement,
  • Estimate of R.C.C slab,
  • Beam,
  • Column and foundation.


  • Sanitary works,
  • Soak pit,
  • Septic tank,
  • Water supply pipe line.


  • Labour required for different works,
  • Materials for cement concrete preparing analysis of rates,
  • Excavation rates.



General specifications of 1st class, 2nd class, 3rd class and 4th class materials.



  • General rules,
  • Earth work,concrete,
  • Stone masonry,
  • Brickwork,
  • Carpenter work,
  • Steel and Iron work,
  • Roof covering,
  • Ceiling, Floor, Plastering, White washing,
  • Colour washing, Painting, Sanitary and Water supply works.


  • Valuation,
  • Gross Income,
  • Net Income,
  • Outgoings,
  • Scrap Value,
  • Salvage Value,
  • Obsolescence,
  • Annuity,
  • Capitalized Value,
  • Years Purchase,
  • Sinking Fund,
  • Depreciation,
  • Valuation of building,
  • Method of valuation,
  • Life of various items of work
  • Mortgage Lease
  • Fixation of rent.


  • Principle of house planning region wise, Ventilation,
  • Economy in construction, Design of building,
  • Area of cubic space for different type of buildings.
  • Planning of residential buildings, Sizes of room,
  • Floor area of rooms and heights, Arrangements of rooms, Position and purpose.
  • Height of rooms, Height of buildings, Thickness of wall,
  • Residential accommodation for various classes of employees.
  • Utilisation of space, Planning and layout of residential colony.


  • Shedule of rates earthwork concrete damp proof course,
  • Brick work, Stone work, Wood work, Mild steel,
  • Iron work, Roof work, Ceiling,
  • Plastering and Pointing,
  • Flooring, Painting,
  • Varnishing and Distempering,
  • White and Colour Washing,
  • Well work, Road work,
  • Annual repair work, Transport, Material rates.
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Objectives
  • 3. Communication plan
  • 4. Duties, responsibilities and authority of qc
  • 5. Personnel
  • * client’s representative
  • * po representative
  • * site engineer
  • * contractor’s project manager
  • * contractor’s site engineer
  • 6. Qc certification in destructive & non destructive testing
  • 7. International - codes and standarads
  • 8. Design
  • * background
  • * purpose of this design quality control plan
  • * subjected to conditions
  • * the components of design quality
  • * main steps of quality achievement
  • * design quality control methodology
  • 9. Construction
  • * submittal procedures and initial submittal register
  • * changes in approved submittals
  • 10. Laboratory testing for material
  • * Testing plan and logs
  • * list of materials under testing system
  • * material method of testing and frequency
  • * routine materials testing
  • 11. Destructive testing
  • 12. Non – destructive testing
  • 13. Complete rework items – procedures
  • * responsibility
  • * item list
  • * rework procedure
  • * preventive action
  • 14. Reporting
  • * responsibility
  • * daily inspection report
  • * monitoring and controls of works program
  • * monthly qc report
  • * test records
  • * site document control
  • * quality records
  • * documentation storage
  • 15. Annexes
  • * daily progress report
  • * weekly progress report
  • * request for testing (rft)
  • * request for survey (rfs)
  • * request for inspection (rfip)
  • * non-conformance report
  • * request for audit testing
  • * request for adult survey (rfs)
  • * request for information
  • * design checklist
  • Non-destructive tests of concrete is a method to obtain the compressive strength and other properties of concrete from the existing structures. This test provides immediate results and actual strength and properties of concrete structure..
  • The standard method of evaluating the quality of concrete in buildings or structures is to test specimens cast simultaneously for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths.


  • 1. Ultrasonic pulse velocity Concrete testing
  • 2. Rebound hammer testing
  • 3. Profometer Testing
  • 4. Carbonation Testing
  • 5. Half cell Potential Testing

    Purposes of Non-destructive Tests

  • Estimating the in-situ compressive strength
  • Estimating the uniformity and homogeneity
  • Estimating the quality in relation to standard requirement
  • Identifying areas of lower integrity in comparison to other parts
  • Detection of presence of cracks, voids and other imperfections
  • Monitoring changes in the structure of the concrete which may occur with time
  • Identification of reinforcement profile and measurement of cover, bar diameter, etc.
  • Condition of prestressing/reinforcement steel with respect to corrosion
  • Chloride, sulphate, alkali contents or degree of carbonation
  • Measurement of Elastic Modulus
  • Condition of grouting in prestressing cable ducts
  • Penetration method
  • Rebound hammer method
  • Pull out test method
  • Ultrasonic pulse velocity method
  • Radioactive methods
  • 1.1. Introduction
  • 1.1.1. Importance and need of non-destructive testing
  • 2. Basic methods for NDT of concrete structures
  • 1.1.3. Qualification and certification
  • 1.2. Basic manufacturing processes and defects of concrete structures
  • 1.2.1. Types of concrete structures
  • 1.2.2. Composition of concrete
  • 1.2.3. Process of concrete manufacture
  • 1.2.4. Properties of concrete and their control
  • 1.2.5. Discontinuities and defects in concrete structures
  • 1.2.6. Situations where NDT is an option to consider for investigation of in situ concrete
  • 1.3. Testing of concrete
  • 1.3.1. Quality control tests
  • 1.3.2. Partial destructive tests
  • 1.3.3. Other tests
  • 1.4. Comparison of NDT methods
  • 1.5. Quality control
  • 1.5.1. The need for quality and quality control
  • 1.5.2. Basic definitions related to quality assurance
  • 1.5.3. Responsibility for quality
  • 1.5.4. Quality control applications in concrete construction
  • 1.5.5. Quality management system
    1.Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing
  • 1.1. Pulse velocity test
  • 1.1.1. Fundamental principle
  • 1.1.2. Equipment for pulse velocity test
  • 1.1.3. Applications
  • 1.1.4. Determination of pulse velocity
  • 1.1.5. Factors influencing pulse velocity measurements
  • 1.1.6. Detection of defects
  • 1.1.7. Developments in ultrasonic tomography
  • 2. Ultrasound pulse echo
  • 2.1. Thickness measurement of concrete slabs with one sided access
  • 2.2. Post-tensioned duct inspection
  • 3. Impact-echo/resonance frequency/stress wave test
  • 3.1. Fundamental principles
  • 3.2. Equipment for impact-echo testing
  • 3.3. General procedure for impact-echo testing
  • 3.4. Applications of and examples of the use of the impact-echo testing method
  • 3.5. Range and limitations of impact-echo testing method
  • 4. Relative amplitude method
  • 4.1. Fundamental principles
  • 4.2. Equipment for relative amplitude method
  • 4.3. General procedure for relative amplitude method
  • 4.4. Applications of relative amplitude method
  • 4.5. Range and limitations of relative amplitude method
  • 5. Velocity versus rebound number curves
  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Procedure for drawing velocity-rebound number curves
  • 5.3. Accuracy of measurement of concrete properties using velocity rebound number curves
  • At present the ultrasonic pulse velocity method is the only one of this type that shows potential for testing concrete strength in situ. It measures the time of travel of an ultrasonic pulse passing through the concrete.
  • The fundamental design features of all commercially available units are very similar, consisting of a pulse generator and a pulse receiver.
  • Pulses are generated by shock-exciting piezoelectric crystals, with similar crystals used in the receiver. The time taken for the pulse to pass through the concrete is measured by electronic measuring circuits.
  • Pulse velocity tests can be carried out on both laboratory-sized specimens and completed concrete structures, but some factors affect measurement:
    2. Rebound Hammer Method
  • 1. Fundamental principle
  • 2. Equipment for Schmidt/rebound hammer test
  • 3. General procedure for Schmidt rebound hammer test
  • 4. Applications of Schmidt rebound hammer test
  • 5. Range and limitations of Schmidt rebound hammer test
  • The rebound hammer is a surface hardness tester for which an empirical correlation has been established between strength and rebound number.
  • The only known instrument to make use of the rebound principle for concrete testing is the Schmidt hammer, which weighs about 4 lb (1.8 kg) and is suitable for both laboratory and field work. It consists of a spring-controlled hammer mass that slides on a plunger within a tubular housing.
  • The hammer is forced against the surface of the concrete by the spring and the distance of rebound is measured on a scale. The test surface can be horizontal, vertical or at any angle but the instrument must be calibrated in this position.
  • Calibration can be done with cylinders (6 by 12 in., 15 by 30 cm) of the same cement and aggregate as will be used on the job. The cylinders are capped and firmly held in a compression machine.
  • Several readings are taken, well distributed and reproducible, the average representing the rebound number for the cylinder. This procedure is repeated with several cylinders, after which compressive strengths are obtained.
    3. Profometer Testing
    Profometer Testing Syllabus
  • 1. determination of the thickness of concrete cover
  • 2. determination of the location of steel bars
  • 3. determination of the diametersof the reinforcement bars
  • Profometer test is a non-destructive testing technique used to detect location and size of reinforcements and concrete cover quickly and accurately. A small, portable, and handy instrument which is known as profometer or rebar locator, is used in this test.
  • The equipment weight is less than two kgs, and works on normal batteries and thus does not require any electrical connection. The basic principle in this test method is that the presence of steel affects the electromagnetic field which is directed by profometer device.
  • This instrument is available with sufficient memory to store measured data. Integrated software is loaded in the equipment for carrying out complicated calculations and printing statistical values.
  • Profometer test is widely used and has many applications. For instance, it is used to specify reinforcement size, location, and condition of existing structures to evaluate their actual strength, location reinforcement is necessary to be determined prior to drilling and cutting cores for testing concrete, analysis of corrosion, conformity check, and quality assurance.

    Purpose of Profometer Test

  • Assess the location of steel bars
  • Measure diameter of reinforcement bars
  • Evaluate thickness of concrete cover.
    4. Carbonation Testing
  • 1. Fundamental principle
  • 2. Equipment for carbonation depth measurement test
  • 3. General procedure for carbonation depth measurement test
  • 4. Range and limitations of carbonation depth measurement test
  • Carbonation of concrete is associated with the corrosion of steel reinforcement and with shrinkage. However, it also increases both the compressive and tensile strength of concrete, so not all of its effects on concrete are bad.
  • Carbonation is the result of the dissolution of CO2 in the concrete pore fluid and this reacts with calcium from calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate to form calcite (CaCO3). Aragonite may form in hot conditions.
  • Within a few hours, or a day or two at most, the surface of fresh concrete will have reacted with CO2 from the air. Gradually, the process penetrates deeper into the concrete at a rate proportional to the square root of time. After a year or so it may typically have reached a depth of perhaps 1 mm for dense concrete of low permeability made with a low water/cement ratio, or up to 5 mm or more for more porous and permeable concrete made using a high water/cement ratio.


  • Carbonation testing can be performed on any concrete component. Field kits allow inspectors to perform the test on-site and determine carbonation extents immediately.
    5. Half cell Potential Testing
    Half cell Potential Testing Syllabus
  • 1. Fundamental principle
  • 2. Equipment for half-cell electrical potential method
  • 3. General procedure for half-cell electrical potential method
  • 4. Applications of half-cell electrical potential testing method
  • 5. Range and limitations of half-cell electrical potential inspection method
  • Corrosion of reinforcing steel is an electro-chemical process and the behaviour of the steel can be characterised by measuring its half-cell potential. The greater the potential the higher the risk that corrosion is taking place. An electrode forms one half of the cell and the reinforcing steel in the concrete the other. The preferred reference electrode for site use is silver/silver chloride in potassium chloride solution although the copper/copper sulphate electrode is still widely used.
  • The survey procedure is firstly to locate the steel and determine the bar spacing using a covermeter. The cover concrete is removed locally over a suitable bar and an electrical connection made to the steel. It is necessary to check that the steel is electrically continuous by measuring the resistance between two widely separated points. The reinforcing bar is connected to the half-cell via a digital voltmeter, see diagram. Readings of half-cell potential are taken over a regular grid of points (say ½ m apart) to give a potential map of the area.
  • Contour lines may be plotted between points of equal potential to indicate those areas that have the greatest risk of corrosion. Locally exposing and inspecting the reinforcement in areas where both high and low risks of corrosion are indicated can be used to approximately calibrate the potential readings for the structure with respect to its present corrosion and the need for further investigation or repair.
    6. Pull off test and Pull out Testing
  • The fundamental principle behind pull out testing is that the test equipment designed to a specific geometry will produce results (pull-out forces) that closely correlate to the compressive strength of concrete. This correlation is achieved by measuring the force required to pull a steel disc or ring, embedded in fresh concrete, against a circular counter pressure placed on the concrete surface concentric with the disc/ring.

    Types of Pull Out Tests:

  • Depending upon the placement of disc/ring in he fresh concrete, pull out test can be divided into 2 types,
  • A) LOK test
  • B) CAPO test
    A. Pull Out Test - LOK Test:
  • The LOK-TEST system is used to obtain a reliable estimate of the in-place strength of concrete in newly cast structures in accordance with the pullout test method described in ASTM C900, BS 1881:207, or EN 12504-3.A steel disc, 25 mm in diameter at a depth of 25 mm, is pulled centrally against a 55 mm diameter counter pressure ring bearing on the surface. The force F required to pullout the insert is measured. The concrete in the strut between the disc and the counter pressure ring is subjected to a compressive load. Therefore the pullout force F is related directly to the compressive strength
    A. Pull Out Test - CAPO test:
  • The CAPO-TEST permits performing pullout tests on existing structures without the need of pre-install inserts. CAPO-TEST provides a pullout test system similar to the LOK-TEST system for accurate on-site estimates of compressive strength. Procedures for performing post-installed pullout tests, such as CAPO-TEST, are included in ASTM C900 and EN 12504-3.When selecting the location for a CAPO-TEST, ensure that reinforcing bars are not within the failure region. The surface at the test location is ground using a planing tool and a 18.4 mm hole is made perpendicular to the surface using a diamond-studded core bit. A recess (slot) is routed in the hole to a diameter of 25 mm and at a depth of 25 mm.A split ring is expanded in the recess and pulled out using a pull machine reacting against a 55 mm diameter counter pressure ring. As in the LOKTEST, the concrete in the strut between the expanded ring and the counter pressure ring is in compression. Hence, the ultimate pullout force F is related directly to compressive strength.
    Pull off test and Pull out Testing Uses:
  • 1) Determine in-situ compressive strength of the concrete
  • 2) Ascertain the strength of concrete for carrying out post tension operations.
  • 3) Determine the time of removal of forms and shores based on actual in-situ strength of the structure.
  • 4) Terminate curing based on in-situ strength of the structure.
  • 5) It can be also used for testing repaired concrete sections.
    pull-off testing
  • The pull-off test, also called stud pull test is a near-to-surface method in which an adhesive connection is made between a stud and the carrier (or object to be tested) by using a glue, possibly an epoxy or polyester resin, that is stronger than the bond that needs to be tested. The force required to pull the stud from the surface, together with the carrier, is measured.
  • Simple mechanical hand-operated loading equipment has been developed for this purpose. When higher accuracy is required, tests can be performed with more advanced equipment called a bond tester. A bond tester provides more control and possibly automation. Applying the glue automatically and curing with UV light is the next step in automation. This methodology can also be used to measure direct tensile strength or/and the bond strength between two different layers.
  • IS: 13311 (Part 1): 1992 Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete-Method of Test; Part 1-Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity.
  • IS: 13311 (Part 2): 1992 Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete-Method of Test; Part 2-Rebound Hammer.
  • BS: 1881: Part 203: 1986 British Standard-Testing Concrete Part 203. Recommendations for Measurement of Velocity of Ultrasonic Pulses in Concrete.
  • ASTM C 597-02 Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity through Concrete.
  • ASTM C 42-87, Standard Test Method (STM) for obtaining and testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 1988, ASTM, Philadelphia, USA
  • ASTM C85-66, “Cement content of hardened Portland cement concrete”, ASTM, Philadelphia, USA
  • ASTM C457-80, “Air void content in hardened concrete”, ASTM, Philadelphia, USA
  • ASTM C823-75, “Examining and sampling of hardened concrete in constructions”
  • ASTM C779-76, “Abrasion resistance of horizontal concrete surfaces”
  • ASTM C944-80, “Abrasion resistance of concrete or mortar surfaces by the rotating cutter method”
  • ASTM C856-77, “Petrographic examination of hardened concrete”
  • ASTM D4788-88 Standard Test Method for detecting Delamination in Bridge Decks using Infrared Thermography
  • ASTM D6087-97 STM for Evaluating Asphalt covered Concrete Bridge Decks using Ground Penetrating Radar
  • ASTM D4580-86 (1997) Standard Practice for measuring Delamination in Concrete Bridge Decks by Sounding
  • ASTM D2950-91 (1997) STM for Density of Bituminous Concrete in place by Nuclear Methods
  • ASTM C1383-98a STM for measuring P wave Speed and the Thickness of Concrete Plates using the Impact-Echo Method
  • ASTM C1150-96 STM for the Break off Number of Concrete
  • ASTM C1040-93 STM for Density of Unhardened and Hardened Concrete in place by Nuclear Methods
  • ASTM C900-94 STM for Pullout Strength of Hardened Concrete
  • ASTM C876-91 STM for Half-cell Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete
  • ASTM C805-97 STM for Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete
  • ASTM C 803-82, STM for Penetration Resistance of Hardened Concrete
  • ASTM C801-98 STM for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Hardened Concrete under Triaxial Load
  • ASTM C597-97 STM for the Pulse Velocity through Concrete.
  • ISO/CD 1920 Teil 7 - Testing Concrete: Non destructive tests of hardened concrete
  • ISO/DIS 8045 Concrete, hardened - Determination of rebound number using rebound hammer
  • ISO/DIS 8046 Concrete, hardened - Determination of pull-out strength.
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